Glossary

AI Analytics

The process of using artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning techniques to analyze data and make predictions or decisions. It involves the use of algorithms and statistical models to uncover insights and patterns in data that would be difficult or impossible for humans to detect. The goal of AI analytics is to improve business outcomes and inform strategic decision making.

Anecdote

A brief account or story of an interesting or humorous event. Adding anecdotes makes your speech memorable and relatable for audiences

Attention Getter

A statement or question that piques the audience’s interest in what you have to say at the very beginning of a speech. People often using interesting anecdotes, surprising facts, or thought provoking questions as attention getters

Body Language

Refers to nonverbal cues, such as facial expressions, gestures, posture, and tone of voice, that convey meaning and emotions. It is an important aspect of communication as it can reveal a person's thoughts and feelings without them having to say anything verbally. By understanding and interpreting body language, one can gain insight into the thoughts and intentions of others.

Call to Action

A suggested action you want the audience to take such as to give the speaker a business card, sign up for a program, or purchase something. [Learn more – Presentation Calls to Action (CTAs)]

Chronological Speech

A speech in which the main points are delivered according to when they happened and could be traced on a calendar or clock.

Cliche

Predictable and generally overused expressions; these usually represent a lack of originality. For example “What goes around comes around.”

Clicker

A device that allows you to change slides from anywhere in the room. By not using a cable mouse you open the whole space to be used for your talk and you don’t have to keep finding the cursor. A decent clicker has a good wireless range and allows you to send a signal from any angle and distance within the room.

Confirmation Bias

A tendency to interpret information in a way that confirms one’s preconceptions. The role of a speaker to get audiences to question their thinking

Cue Card

A small card or piece of paper used as a prompt or reminder during a performance, speech, or presentation. It typically contains key phrases, points or notes for the person to remember. The cards can be held in hand or placed on a stand or table in front of the speaker. They are commonly used in television, film, and theater production as well as public speaking engagements.

Dais

(Pronounced day-iss.) Raised platform on which the head table is placed.

Death by PowerPoint

Phrase used to describe a presentation that is overly long, overly complex, or overly reliant on slides, resulting in the audience being bored or disengaged. It's often used to describe presentations where the speaker reads the text on the slides word-for-word, using too much text, bullet points, and charts, and not enough visuals or engaging content. It is also used to describe presentations where the speaker is not engaging enough and not able to hold the attention of the audience.

Disfluency

An interruption or deviation in the flow of speech, such as "um," "Ah," "like," or repeated words and phrases. It is a common phenomenon in spontaneous speech and may indicate hesitation, uncertainty, or the need for cognitive processing.

Eloquent

Refers to the ability to speak or write well and persuasively, using language in an effective and powerful way. It can also refer to someone who speaks or writes in a fluent, clear, and effective manner.

Ethos

To persuade a listener using credibility and ethics

Euology

A speech given in honor of someone who has died

Euphemisms

These are phrases often substituted for ones considered to be too harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassing. For example, saying "passed away" instead of "dead" or "let go" instead of "fired"

Figurative Language

Language that uses metaphors and similes to compare things that may not be literally alike. For example, saying "I'm drowning in a sea of grief" instead of saying "I'm upset"

Gavel

A small mallet traditionally used by a judge, auctioneer, or Toastmaster to call for attention, signal a decision, or mark the end of a session. It is also commonly used in legislative bodies and organizations to indicate a decision has been made or to call for order.

Gesticulation

This word is the technical term of making gestures by moving one’s body parts, such as arms, hands, and legs, as a way to share an expression. Most people naturally “speak with their hands” and you want to make sure you’re not over-emoting with your gestures because they can distract your audience. [Learn more – 4 Body Language Secrets to Know Before Your Next Presentation]

Gesture

A nonverbal movement or action made with the body, such as a wave, a nod, or a point, to communicate an idea or emotion. It can also be a symbolic or ritualistic movement, such as a salute or a bow, used to convey respect or deference.

Glossophobia

The fear of public speaking. Although commonly known as America’s biggest fear, it is actually #20, and this fear can easily be overcome with proper preparation. [Learn more – 5 Quick Tips to Overcome Presentation Fear]

Humour

The quality of being amusing or comical, it can be found in various forms of expression such as jokes, satire, irony, and wordplay. It can provoke laughter or amusement in your audience

Hypothetical Narrative

A story of something that could happen but has not happened yet. Used to help the audience visualize a potential scenario

Impromptu Speech

Presenting a short message without advance preparation. Also called speaking off the cuff

In Conclusion

A phrase used to signal the end of a speech, presentation or an argument and to summarize the main points. It is used as a transitional phrase to help the audience understand that the speaker is winding up the discussion and is preparing to end it.

Irony

Saying that departs from what the audience expects you to say or do. For example, if it were a cold, rainy gray day, you might say, “What a beautiful day!”

Irrefutable

A statement or claim that cannot be argued.

Keynote Presentation

Technically, a keynote address is “a policy, speech, or idea is the main theme of it or the part of it that is emphasized the most.” However, most people consider a keynote the main presentation to the entire conference (opposed to smaller breakout sessions). A keynote presentation is generally on a podium or stage with screens flanking it and it is given to large audiences. Keynote speakers are held in high regard because they usually present often as a highly regarded person and many keynote speakers are professional speakers that do 100-250 paid presentations a year around a central theme (usually related to their book).

Lavaliere Microphone

Portable microphone that hooks around neck or is clipped to clothing. Also known as a necklace, lapel, or pendant microphone.

Logical Fallacy

Mistakes in reasoning; erroneous conclusions or statements made from poor inductive or deductive analyses.

Logos

To appeal to the audience's logic. The speaker makes clear, logical connections between ideas, and includes the use of facts and statistics.

Memorise

Word used in British English. It means to commit something to memory by repetition or practice, so that it can be recalled later. It's the process of committing something to long-term memory through repetition and rehearsal.

Memorize

Word used in American English. It means to commit something to memory by repetition or practice, so that it can be recalled later. It's the process of committing something to long-term memory through repetition and rehearsal.

Monotone

Speaking without much variation in pitch, pacing or loudness. Monotone speeches are typically considered boring.

Onomonopia

A literary device that uses words that imitate the natural sounds associated with the objects/actions they refer to. It is a figure of speech in which the sound of a word imitates its action, for example, "buzz," "hiss," "sizzle."

Paraphrasing

Putting the words and ideas of others into one’s own authentic or personal language.

Pathos

To persuade an audience by purposely evoking certain emotions to make them feel the way the speaker wants them to feel

Pause

A temporary stop or break in an activity or process, it can be used in speech, music or any other activity. Pause can also refer to a temporary suspension of time or an interruption in a sequence of events.

Podium

Platform on which a speaker stands.

Rate of Speech

Rate of speech or pacing is a measure of how fast a person talks. It is calculated by counting the number of words spoken per minute (WPM). 140 - 170 WPM is considered conversational pace. More important than average pace is how you vary your pace over the course of your speech. Experts suggest having a sinusoidal graph (ie. sections in which you speak fast and others where you speak slowly)

Red Herring

A clue or piece of information that is intended to be misleading or distracting from the issue at hand

Rhetorical Question

Writing techniques used to take audience on a melodic rollercoaster or to persuade them towards taking an action. They are woven within the fabric of our language (a metaphor because this fabric doesn’t exist) and when used properly can move a nation to unite.

Rooting Down

To stand upright with your weight evenly distributed over both of your hips. Throwing your weight either side of the body will quickly tell your audience you’re nervous and not comfortable with speaking before an audience. When you’re worried or scared your body language drops and when confident you’ll be well rooted.

Rule of Three

A general speaking principle that states that ideas presented in threes are more interesting, more enjoyable, and more memorable for your audience. Information presented in a group of three sticks in our head better than other groups.

Signposting

A type of connective that emphasizes physical movement through the speech content and lets the audience know exactly where they are; commonly uses terms such as First, Second, Finally or intro, middle, end. Helps audiences remember the speaker's message more clearly

Signposts

A type of connective that emphasizes physical movement through the speech content and lets the audience know exactly where they are; commonly uses terms such as First, Second, Finally or intro, middle, end. Helps audiences remember the speaker's message more clearly

Slang

A type of language that consists of informal words and phrases; these may pertain to a subculture or group that others may not understand.

Slippery Slope

A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent events that cannot be prevented.

Speech Coach

A professional who helps individuals improve their public speaking skills. Such individuals likely use Yoodli as their assistant to help their clients be aware about their speech patterns.

TED Speech

A speech delivered to an audience in an organized TED event. This speech is usually delivered on a subject you know quite a lot about and it's essentially free marketing. Ted speeches are booked weeks or months in advanced and are hosted all over the world.

Table Topic

Impromptu speaking exercises used in Toastmasters and other public speaking clubs or events. They are short, pre-prepared questions that are read out to participants, who then have to give a one to two-minute speech on the topic without any preparation. The purpose of table topics is to help participants improve their impromptu speaking skills, and to give them practice in thinking on their feet.

Tall Tale

Form of public speaking storytelling where the storyteller tells an exaggeration of the truth, often with impossible or improbable events. It is a type of storytelling that has its origin in the oral tradition of the American frontier, and it is characterized by hyperbolic exaggeration and fantastic elements, such as larger-than-life heroes and unbelievable events.

Toast

A speech designed to congratulate, appreciate, or remember. Often used at celebrations such as birthdays, weddings

Topical Speech

A speech in which main points are developed separately and are generally connected together within the introduction and conclusion.

Transition Statements

Phrases or sentences that lead from one distinct-but-connected idea to another.

Two Tailed Argument

A persuasive technique in which a speaker brings up a counter-argument to their own topic and then directly refutes the claim.

Video Interview Practice

Aa way to prepare for job interviews by recording oneself answering commonly asked interview questions and then reviewing the recording for areas of improvement.

Visual Aids

A tool that can be used to enhance the message of the speaker. This may be a presentation, a prop or an image.

Vocal Variety

A spice rack for your speaking voice, it gives your presentations, speeches, and conversations a little extra flavor. The practice of using different vocal techniques to add emphasis, interest and expressiveness to one's speech, including changes in pitch, volume, rate and tone.

Volume

The relative softness or loudness of your voice.

Webcam Mic

A device that is built-in or can be attached to a webcam to enhance the audio quality of the video recording or live streaming. It can be used for recording personal speeches, video conferencing, or live streaming.

Webcam Recorder

A devce that captures video and audio through a connected camera, it can be used for recording personal videos or for video conferencing.